Exam Questions

Student answers one question from each of the four groups. To make it easier for students to prepare for the exam, we have made the specifics of the individual exam questions available for students on the web site, but also on the exam site after the questions have been retrieved. Each question specifies the main points the student should prepare, as well as the recommended images he should draw. If the student thinks fit, he can prepare other points or draw other images that are in some way related to the topic. Teachers also have the right to ask for other questions related to the topic, even if they are not listed among the main points.

Download List of topics: List of all AHE exam questions

Download guidance for topic specifications by groups: AHE group AAHE group BAHE group CAHE group D

Group A: Locomotion system (bones, joints, muscles) and Topography

1.    General structure and growth of a bone
2.    Bones of limbs
3.    Skull
4.    Skull of newborn and temporomandibular joint
5.    Vertebral column, sternum and ribs
Joints and corresponding regions
6.    General structure of a joint
7.    Joints of pectoral girdle
8.    Shoulder joint and axilla
9.    Elbow joint and cubital fossa
10.    Joints and topographical sites of hand
11.    Pelvis as a whole
12.    Hip and sacroiliac joint
13.    Knee joint and popliteal fossa
14.    Ankle joint, joints of foot, foot arch and  topographical sites of foot
15.    Joints of vertebral column and thorax
16.    General structure and innervation of a muscle
17.    Masticatory and facial muscles, fasciae of head
18.    Muscles and fasciae of neck
19.    Muscles and fasciae of thorax
20.    Diaphragm and mechanism of breathing
21.    Muscles and fasciae of abdomen
22.    Pelvic and urogenital floors and their fasciae, ischioanal fossa
23.    Muscles, fasciae, regions and topographic sites of back
24.    Muscles, fasciae, regions and topographic sites of pectoral girdle
25.    Muscles, fasciae, regions and topographic sites of arm
26.    Muscles, fasciae, regions and topographic sites of forearm
27.    Muscles, fasciae, regions and topographic sites of hand
28.    Muscles, fasciae, regions and topographic sites of pelvic girdle
29.    Muscles, fasciae, regions and topographic sites of thigh
30.    Muscles, fasciae, regions and topographic sites of leg
31.    Muscles, fasciae, regions and topographic sites of foot
32.    Scalp and cranial vault, frontal and occipital regions
33.    Orbit and nasal cavity
34.    Face, infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossae
35.    Regions, triangles and spaces of neck
36.    Inguinal canal, abdominal wall and herniae
37.    Topographical sites of upper limb
38.    Topographical sites of lower limb
39.    Vertebral canal and its contents
40.    Topography of male pelvis and male genital organs
41.    Topography of female pelvis and female genital organs

Essential points and figures for each Qs- Group A

Group B: Organ systems (digestive, respiratory, urinary a and genital, heart, endocrine glands and skin)

Digestive system

1.    Teeth

2.    Tongue and palate

3.    Salivary glands

4.    Pharynx

5.    Oesophagus

6.    Stomach and omental bursa

7.    Duodenum

8.    Small intestine

9.    Large intestine

10.    Rectum

11.    Liver

12.    Gallbladder and bile ducts

13.    Pancreas

14.    Peritoneum and peritoneal cavity

Respiratory system

15.    Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx

16.    Larynx

17.    Trachea and bronchial tree

18.    Lungs and alveolar tree

19.    Pleura and pleural cavity

20.    Mediastinum, its division and contents

Urinary system

21.    Kidneys

22.    Urinary tract

23.    Male and female urethra

Genital system

24.    Scrotum, testis and epididymis

25.    Excretory male genital tract

26.    Accessory male genital glands

27.    External male genital organs

28.    Ovarium and ovarian cycle

29.    Uterine tube

30.    Uterus and menstruation cycle

31.    Placenta and fetal membranes

32.    Vagina

33.    External female genital organs


34.    Heart – structure, cavities, valves

35.    Conducting system of heart

36.    Heart – vessels and innervation

37.    Heart and circulation


38.    Thyroid and parathyroid glands

39.    Suprarenal gland and other hormone producing organs

40.    Pituitary gland

41.    Mammary gland

42.    Skin

43.    Second week of development

44.    Third week of development

Essential points and figures of each Qs- Group B

Group C: Vascular and lymphatic system and peripheral nervous system

1.    Blood
2.    Hemopoesis
3.    Aorta and coronary arteries
4.    Abdominal aorta
5.    Iliac arteries
6.    External carotid artery
7.    Maxillary artery
8.    Internal carotid artery
9.    Cerebral arterial circle
10.    Vertebral artery
11.    Subclavian artery
12.    Arteries of upper limb
13.    Arteries of lower limb
14.    Dural venous sinuses and veins of the brain
15.    Veins of neck
16.    Superior vena cava and its tributaries, cavocaval anastomoses
17.    Inferior vena cava and its tributaries, cavocaval anastomoses
18.    Portal vein and portocaval anastomoses
19.    Veins of thorax and portocaval anastomoses
20.    Superficial veins and venous perforators of limbs
21.    Deep veins and venous perforators of limbs
Lymphatic system
22.    Spleen
23.    Thymus, incompletely encapsulated and non-encapsulated lymphoid tissue
24.    Lymphatic vessels and trunks
25.    Lymphatic drainage of head and neck
26.    Lymphatic drainage of thorax and upper limb
27.    Lymphatic drainage of abdomen
28.    Lymphatic drainage of pelvis and lower limb
Peripheral nervous system
29.    General structure of spinal nerve and thoracic nerves
30.    Dermatomes, myotomes, peripheral nerve fields, Head’s zones, ganglia
31.    Special sensory cranial nerves
32.    Oculomotor, trochlear and abducent nerves
33.    Trigeminal nerve
34.    Facial nerve
35.    Glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves
36.    Vagus nerve
37.    Cervical plexus and hypoglossal nerve
38.    Brachial plexus
39.    Lumbar plexus
40.    Sacral plexus
41.    Sympathetic trunk
42.    Abdominal autonomic plexuses
43.    Cranial parasympathetic system
44.    Sacral parasympathetic system

Essential points and figures of each Qs- Group C

Group D: Group D: Central nervous system

Central nervous system
1.    General structure of nervous system (neuron, glia, synapsis, mediators, receptors)
2.    Spinal cord – grey matter
3.    Spinal cord – white matter and reflexes
4.    Medulla oblongata,  reflexes and function
5.    Pons,  reflexes and function
6.    Mesencephalon,  reflexes and function
7.    Reticular formation
8.    Cerebellum – structure and function
9.    Cerebellum – connections and function
10.    Diencephalon – division, epithalamus, subthalamus, metathalamus, pineal gland
11.    Thalamus
12.    Hypothalamus and pituitary gland
13.    Internal capsule and white matter of telencephalon
14.    Cortical functional areas
15.    Basal ganglia
16.    Limbic system
17.    Association and commissural connections of brain
18.    Motor tracts
19.    Sensory tracts
20.    Visual tract
21.    Auditory and vestibular tracts
22.    Olfactory and gustatory tracts
23.    Meninges, brain ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid
24.    Arteries of brain and spinal cord
25.    Veins of brain and spinal cord
26.    Chemical systems of brain
27.    Topography of cranial cavity
28.    Eye – anterior segment
29.    Eye – posterior segment
30.    Accessory structures of eye
31.    Oculomotor muscles and topography of orbit
32.    External ear
33.    Middle ear
34.    Internal ear
35.    Smell
36.    Taste
37.    Touch
38.    Pain
39.    Interoceptors

Essential points and figures of each Qs- Group D


Created: 2. 3. 2022 / Modified: 9. 6. 2023 / Responsible person: MUDr. Martin Salaj, Ph.D.