Endocrine system and skin

Learning & Test Objectives

  1. Components of the endocrine system and skin individually and as a unit at the gross level as well at the microscopic anatomy level.
  2. Pituitary and pineal glands, hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract.
  3. Thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands - macroscopic and microscopic structure and development. Produced hormones and their function.
  4. Endocrine microglands - Langerhans islets and individual endocrine cells in non-endocrine organs.
  5. General structure of skin, its regional variability and its development.
  6. Skin adnexes - hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands.
  7. Mammary gland - structure, developmental stages, blood supply, lymphatic drainage, secretion of milk.

Description of the test

The test is held by the general rules of written tests (see Continuous Testing – Organisation). The test will focus mainly on the macroscopic and microscopic structure, location, syntopy, blood supply, innervation and development of endocrine glands, skin and skin derivatives. For each endocrine gland and mammary gland, the nerve and vascular supplies must be known, including the arteries, drainage veins and the relevant lymphatic vessels. Attention should be paid to the internal structure of the endocrine glands, the arrangement of secretory cells, the secretions of hormones (and their type with respect to the structure of secretory cells) and an outline of their function, as well as the development and developmental defects of individual glands. For skin, it is necessary to focus on skin layers, local variations, skin derivatives (hair, nails, glands) and skin development. Special attention is given to the mammary gland, its structure with respect to functional state, development and the most common diseases. At the end of the test the student must draw and describe one of the required schemes (listed below).

List of required schemes for drawing

  • structure and blood supply of the pituitary gland
  • structure and blood supply of the adrenal gland
  • layers of epidermis
  • hair follicle - longitudinal and transverse section
Created: 23. 9. 2021 / Modified: 2. 5. 2022 / Responsible person: MUDr. Azzat Al-Redouan